Male and female rats have the same basal behavioral profile. Figure 2 A shows number of infusions obtained per daily session and mean number of infusions during the entire acquisition phase in male and female rats during the acquisition phase of METH self-administration training. The groups start to differ significantly from the day 10 with t-test results: Results are reported on the Figure 3. Statistical analyses were computed using SPSS Both studies were conducted with cocaine.
Each animal was placed in the center of arena and the spontaneous behavior was tracked for 10 min. Materials and Methods Animals Eight-week-old male and female albino Sprague-Dawley rats weighing — g females and — g males at the beginning of the experiment were purchased from Charles River Germany. These approaches already explained extensively the role of gonadal hormones in the reward processes showing enhancement of drug intake by estradiol 17 , 18 , 20 — 22 and attenuation of drug seeking by progesterone 4 , Similarly, in clinical studies, there has been shown that men are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of a high dose of d-amphetamine than women, who respond rather to low doses at a random phase of the menstrual cycle Therefore, this paradigm using operant drug self-administration and reinstatement of drug-seeking after forced abstinence model can be used for preclinical screening for potential new anti-relapse medications specific for women. Maintenance of food self-administration was analyzed at individual days by t-test. There was a massive difference between the sexes recorded: Furthermore, we assessed possible gender differences in acquisition and maintenance of food self-administration in order to compare the operant behavior toward natural reward food and the drug of abuse. The A part shows number of infusions expressed as daily means over the 14 days of acquisition and maintenance of the METH IV self-administration. Furthermore, the food self-administration has shown a very different dynamics than the METH study, suggesting higher motivation to obtain natural reward sweet pellet in females, which learned the operant procedure faster acquisition and self-administered approximately three times more pellets than males. Despite the absolute number of female METH abusers being lower than the male ones, women usually appear more dependent, show higher escalation rates 1 , 2 and most importantly tend to experience more frequent relapses 3 , 4. However, results supporting higher vulnerability to METH in intact female rats were reported too. Furthermore, there is new evidence of specific pharmacokinetic differences in METH self-administration studies, where males were shown to have lower area under curve AUC of METH probably due to rapid drug elimination Previous studies have shown that female rats to be more vulnerable to behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants including cocaine 36 — 38 and, in particular, amphetamines including METH , which elicited a higher increase of locomotion in females than males or reach the same behavior profile at lower dose 25 , 28 , 39 , This measure is not widely used among the self-administration studies, usually only the numbers of nose pokes or lever presses and infusions are reported. Oh, hang on a minute Therefore, gender differences in the CPP paradigm might be biased by fluctuating hormonal levels in intact females. As expected, both sexes avoided the central part of the arena, which represents normal rodent behavior and neither one shows highly anxiogenic behavior or locomotor hyper- or hypo-activity. Statistical analyses were computed using SPSS The clothes may be from those of a traditional submissive female role, such as schoolgirl, secretary or a "sissy" maid, or others, such as a princess. Female rats have been repeatedly shown to achieve higher breaking points in METH self-administration study suggesting higher motivation to obtain the drug 10 , The cage was illuminated by a house light during the session. During the maintenance phase of the METH self-administration, female rats were found to self-administer the same number of infusion, but their METH intake in terms of dose per kilogram of body weight was found lower. These gender specific differences require specific treatment strategies for men and women 5 — 7. There is a large body of clinical evidence suggesting differential characteristics of the disorder in men and women, which is in line with preclinical findings as well. Introduction Methamphetamine METH addiction is a serious psychosocial problem, which leads to organic harm of the body as well as distortion of the normal functioning of affected people within the society and family.
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