Fourth century grave reliefs on the island of Rhodes depicted mothers with children. Psychosis and schizophrenia are common causes of both,   and young, indigent mothers with a history of domestic abuse are slightly more likely to commit filicide. The total fertility rate TFR , that is, the number of children born per woman, differs greatly from country to country. For more details on these subjects, see Legitimacy family law and single parent. The most recent data suggests that Italy , Sweden and Luxembourg are the safest countries in terms of maternal death and Afghanistan , Central African Republic and Malawi are the most dangerous. Mothers are more likely than fathers to encourage assimilative and communion-enhancing patterns in their children. Mother-offspring violence Main articles: This continues to be the case in many parts of the developing world today, but in many Western countries the situation has changed radically, with single motherhood being much more socially acceptable now.
In many cultures, women received significant help in performing these tasks from older female relatives, such as mothers in law or their own mothers. The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been estimated as being deaths per , births. Mothers' rights within the workforce include maternity leave and parental leave. The social role and experience of motherhood varies greatly depending upon location. Percentage of births to unmarried women, selected countries, and Traditionally, and still in most parts of the world today, a mother was expected to be a married woman, with birth outside of marriage carrying a strong social stigma. There are many examples of religious law relating to mothers and women. Brooklyn Museum Throughout history mothers with their children have often been the subject of artistic works, such as paintings, sculptures or writings. Many contemporary movies portray mothers. In recent decades there has been an increase in stay at home fathers too. Mothers may be stay at home mothers or working mothers. This strong association of that sound with "mother" has persisted in nearly every language on earth, countering the natural localization of language. A maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes". In modern cultures, matricide the killing of one's mother and filicide the killing of one's son or daughter have been studied but remain poorly understood. Social views on these arrangements vary significantly by culture: The TFR in was estimated to be highest in Niger 7. Fourth century grave reliefs on the island of Rhodes depicted mothers with children. Mother-offspring violence Main articles: The proverbial "first word" of an infant often sounds like "ma" or "mama". Historically, this stigma not only applied to the mother, but also to her child. Matricide and Filicide History records many conflicts between mothers and their children. The total fertility rate TFR , that is, the number of children born per woman, differs greatly from country to country. For more details on these subjects, see Legitimacy family law and single parent. In the 18th century, these works embodied the Enlightenment's preoccupation with strong family bonds and the relation between mothers and children. Christianity ,  Judaism ,  and Islam. The most recent data suggests that Italy , Sweden and Luxembourg are the safest countries in terms of maternal death and Afghanistan , Central African Republic and Malawi are the most dangerous. Mothers are more likely than fathers to encourage assimilative and communion-enhancing patterns in their children.
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