These surveys were renamed the HSC Health Tracking physician survey in to reflect the substitution of the clustered 60 site sample design with a national sample. Differences in median income by sex were also present throughout the study period and were larger in magnitude than differences by race. For example, across all years the survey included 43 white male physicians, black male physicians, 15 white female physicians, and black female physicians. We included survey wave indicators to account for the three cross sections of the HSC physician surveys. We combined data from two recent nationally representative surveys to evaluate differences in income by race and sex among US physicians. Figures are percentages unless stated otherwise View this table:
Patient involvement No patients were involved in setting the research question or the outcome measures, nor were they involved in developing plans for design or implementation of the study. For categorical variables such as state, we computed adjusted values at the means of the individual indicator variables that is, reflecting the mean proportion of the sample in each category—for example, the proportion of the sample in a given state. Further, it is important to distinguish whether these differences are driven primarily by factors such as access to higher paying specialties to help guide policy efforts to reduce disparities. Given income was reported as a continuous measure in the and surveys but as categorical variable in , in our baseline analysis we recoded income into the following categories: Methods Data sources We used data from two national surveys, each with its own strengths and limitations, to estimate differences in income in black and white physicians. Nonetheless, analysis of the HSC physician surveys is important to assess whether differences income by race observed in the ACS are likely to be robust to adjustment for detailed physician and practice characteristics. Introduction National estimates of differences in annual income between black and white physicians in the United States are limited, despite evidence from outside healthcare that black workers continue to earn less than white workers over five decades since the Civil Rights Act of We again used robust standard errors to adjust for heteroskedasticity. Smith's team looked at placental and maternal blood samples from 4, firsttime mothers. Whether these differences reflect disparities in job opportunities is important to determine. We used robust standard errors to adjust for heteroskedasticity. The sample of physicians was randomly drawn from the masterfiles of the American Medical Association AMA and the American Osteopathic Association, and primary care physicians were oversampled in the and waves. You might also like: In each time period, we first compared adjusted median income between male and female physicians and between white and black physicians. In contrast, previous surveys often included fewer than black physicians. Table 1 Characteristics of study population in American Community Survey, The purpose of this analysis was to assess whether a similar pattern of differences in income by race was observed in both the HSC physician surveys and ACS when we adjusted for a similar set of variables. For example, across all years the survey included 43 white male physicians, black male physicians, 15 white female physicians, and black female physicians. The study basically backs up previous research that found moms of girls are more at risk for preeclampsia and baby boys are more at risk for restricted growth, and sheds some light on why that is. Knowing the gender of your future baby may not help you decorate their room, but it could one day help your doctor keep mama and baby healthy. We therefore used a second source of data, which included information on physician specialty, hours worked, and practice characteristics, to supplement our analyses. The average number of hours worked per week was similar between white and black male physicians Figures are percentages unless stated otherwise View this table: The spermine that was found in higher levels in moms of girls was a predictor of complications. Physicians reflect a more homogenous group than the overall working population, and focus on this group accounts for some of the factors mediating race differences in income in the overall population, such as education. Researchers also found moms who were expecting girls had higher levels of spermine in their blood and the placental cells from boys' placentas were more impacted by a drug that blocked spermine production.
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